The word enneagram comes from two Greek words: Ennea means “nine” and gram means “drawing” or “figure”. Combined as Enneagram means nine types of personality, nine distinct but interrelated personality types, or nine ways of thinking, feeling, behaving and experiencing the world. People are born with all nine personality types, but only one type is dominant – the autopilot or habitual pattern. The characteristics of this dominant type may either soften or become more pronounced as we grow and develop. In addition to our dominant Enneagram type, there are four other types that provide additional qualities to our personalities; these are called wings and arrows of integrations.
The Enneagram symbol and the personality types associated with it have ancient roots that can trace back to over 2000 years ago. Traces of it can be found in the early mystical forms of many spiritual teachings in Asia and the Middle East.
Modern Enneagram and its usage have been heavily influenced by three individuals across three continents: G.I. Gurdjieff in the 1930s in Europe, and Oscar Ichazo from the 1950s to the present in South America. Claudio Naranjo, an American psychiatrist born in Chile, initially studied the Enneagram with Ichazo and brought it to the United States in the 1970s.
Today, knowledge of the Enneagram system is growing all around the world. The insights about human functioning and development are being applied in many varied areas including business management, team development, people management, personal development, relationship, parenting and education. Top Universities in the US such as Stanford University in California has been teaching Enneagram in their professional development courses, Union Institute & University in Ohio has been teaching Enneagram to practicing psychologists. Great articles about Enneagram have been published in top business publications such as Harvard Business Review. Also, thousands of Enneagram books have been translated and published in various languages all over the world.
Principled, idealistic, purposeful, rational, disciplined, self-controlled, right or wrong, fixated on improvement.
Ones are essentially looking to make things better, as they think nothing is ever quite good enough. This makes them perfectionists who want to reform and improve, who desire to make order out of the omnipresent chaos, and hold self and others to high standards.
Objectivity, law & order, responsible, meticulous, good teacher, set things in place, deliver high standards
Intolerance, Obsessiveness / rigid, Punitiveness, Judgemental, Unforgiving, Project standard on others
Likes SOP, will lead by example, detailed, avoid risk, likes accountability, likes precise standard, likes knowing who is responsible for what.
The Caring, people centered, interpersonal type. Generous, people-pleasing, possessive caring, nurturing。
Twos essentially feel that they are worthy insofar as they are helpful to others. Love is their highest ideal. Selflessness is their duty. They have the need to be needed, often relate his value to the acceptance and love of others. Giving to others is their reason for being. Involved, socially aware, usually extroverted, Twos are the type of people who remember everyone’s birthday and who go the extra mile to help out a co-worker and friends in need.
Accepting, Empathy, Generosity, willing to sacrifice, sensitive to the needs of others
Manipulation, Coercion, self-forgetting, feeling victimized, unwilling to get help
Cheerleader, appreciators, likes cooperation, fewer conflicts, willing to move to one common goal, highly responsive to approval and encouragement, management by encouraging others.
The Success-Oriented, pragmatic type: Adaptive, excelling, self-motivated, image-conscious, self-confidence and like to be praised.
Threes need to be validated in order to feel worthy; they pursue success and want to be admired. They are frequently hard-working, competitive and are highly focused on the pursuit of their goals. Likes attention, showing better side to others, likes short-cuts, good at multi-tasking.
Can be accommodating to maintain a good relationship with the purpose of achieving something.
Self-motivated, adaptability, good at multi-tasking, good presenter, convincing, efficient producer, agile – can play to the crowd
Opportunism, workaholic, vain, acting, deceitful
Task-oriented, belief in meritocracy, high profile, feels rage when tasks and goals are interrupted, needs a clear path to success, takes on the image and feelings of a task
Sensitive, imaginative, expressive, dramatic, emotional, creative, Identity seekers, feel unique and different. Push-pull relationship.
Fours build their identities around their perception of themselves as being somehow different or unique; they are thus self-consciously individualistic. They have a good sense of beauty and like to make meaning from experiences. Shy, introvert, often feels uneasy in an unfamiliar environment. Usually has its own style of life, very much in touch with emotion.
Creative, empathetic, aesthetic and gets to the heart of the matter
Moody, arrogant, difficult to pleas, often feel melancholic or depressive, envy others on what they have
Do not like repetitive works, likes jobs that call for creativity, can find meaning in work,
efficiency is tied to mood, likes to work alone.
A thinker, perceptive, quiet, alone, detached, secretive, withdraw himself to observe
Fives essentially fear that they don’t have enough inner strength to face life, so they tend to withdraw, to retreat into the safety and security of the mind where they can mentally prepare for their emergence into the world. Type Fives often detach, not easy to make friends with. They need personal space. Fives feel comfortable and at home in the realm of thought. They are generally intelligent, well-read and thoughtful and they frequently become experts in the areas that capture their interest.
Objective, expertise, logical thinking, calm temperament
Lack of energy, think too much but little action, Unreachable loner, looks arrogant
Well-informed, likes privacy and treats it as a reward. Values unemotional decision making, needs to withdraw in order to figure things out. Can listen and very analytic to solve problem. Freezes when unexpectedly questioned
Security-Oriented, responsible, anxious, suspicious, stable, good team player, hates disloyal people, faithful custodians.
Sixes essentially feel insecure, as though there is nothing quite steady enough to hold onto. At the core of the type Six personality is a kind of fear or anxiety. Sixes don’t trust easily; they are often ambivalent about others, until the person has absolutely proven herself, at which point they are likely to respond with steadfast loyalty. They are good in preparation work and often have contingency plans.
Loyal, trustworthy, dutiful, committed and supportive
Over-reaction, Negative, immobilized by fear, suspicious, feels inferior
Very prudent, like clear instructions and SOP at work, a supportive team player, like a work environment with a clear hierarchy structure.
Fun-Loving type, impulsive, versatile, distracted, scattered, avoid pain, seek and plan for varieties of experience
Sevens like to avoid pain, so they are essentially concerned that their lives be an exciting adventure. They are future-oriented, restless people who are generally convinced that something better is just around the corner. They usually avoid being tied down. They are quick thinkers who have a great deal of energy and who make lots of plans. They tend to be extroverted, multi-talented, creative and open-minded.
Enthusiasm, creative, optimistic, exciting, resourceful, inspiring fast learner
Over-reaction, playful, afraid of commitment, avoid pain by moving away from problems.
Many ideas, a delightful person to work with, a popular co-worker, can be forgiving and creative during hard times
Extrovert, optimistic, powerful, dominating, authoritative, self-confident, decisive, willful, hates injustice, confrontational, friend-foe relationship, likes to control.
Eights are essentially unwilling to be controlled, either by others or by their circumstances; they fully intend to be masters of their fate. Eights are strong-willed, decisive, practical, tough-minded and energetic. They are good protectors of friends, family members and subordinates. They like to be respected rather than to be loved. Hates pretender.
Powerful, fights for justice, responsible, motivating, self- confidence, protect the weak
Pushy, bully, ruthless, dictatorial and bad temper, double standard
Demands to be fully informed, Confrontational. Anger is direct, No hidden agenda holds no grudges. Respects honest leadership and worthy opponents..
The Easygoing Type, accepting, harmonizing, agreeable, complacent, supportive. Keeping peace and harmony, looks passive and indecisive.
Nines essentially feel a need for peace and harmony. They tend to avoid conflict at all costs, whether it be internal or interpersonal. As the potential for conflict in life is virtually ubiquitous, the Nine’s desire to avoid it generally results in some degree of withdrawal from life, and many Nines are, in fact, introverted. They are typical fence-sitters. Unresponsive and walking away from problems. Do not like to order others, but feel uncomfortable when ordered by others. Type Nines have the ability to see things from multiple perspectives.
Warm & humble, empathetic, supportive, can mediate conflicts
Indecisive, belittle self, absent-minded, overly accommodating, withdraw
Likes SOP and clear lines of command, a social gel and people share a lot with him, cautionary in taking risks, good mediator. Flourishes in conditions of positive support。 Can be passive-aggressive when ordered to do something they don’t like.
Usually one has characteristics of one of the types that lie adjacent to one’s own that are more prominent. This is called the wing. So someone who is a type 5, might have a 4 wing or a 6 wing. This may be abbreviated to “5w4” and “5w6”. According to this, we shall have 18 personality variations: 2w1、2w3、3w2、3w4、4w3、4w5、5w4、5w6、6w5、6w7、7w6、7w8、8w7、8w9、9w8、9w1、1w9、1w2。
“ENNEAGRAM” 是由两个希腊文字组成：“ENNEA” 代表数字“九”，”GRAM”代表形状，整体意思是“九型人格图”，代表着九种截然不同但相互关联的人格类型，或者九种思维，感觉，行为和体验世界的方式。人们天生具有全部九种人格类型，但只有一种人格类型占据主导地位 – 自动反应模式或惯性模式。随着我们的成长和人格发展，这种主导类型的特征可能会被收敛或变得更加明显。我们除了拥有主导人格类型之外，还有其他四种类型可以为我们的个性提供其他特性。这四种类型是我们的侧翼和整合方向。
现代九型人格学受到来自三大洲的三个学者的重大影响：1930年代的 G.I. Gurdjieff 来自欧洲，1950 年代的 Oscar Ichazo 来自南美洲，以及1970年代来自智利的Claudio Naranjo 把九型人格学带入美国。如今，全世界对九型人格学的了解已经得到蓬勃发展。关于性格的功能和发展的见解已应用于许多不同领域，包括企业管理，团队发展，人员管理，个人发展，人际关系，育儿和教育等等。美国的顶级大学，例如加利福尼亚州的斯坦福大学，一直在其专业管理课程中教授九型人格学，俄亥俄州的联合大学也一直在向心理学从业人员教授九型人格学。有关九型人格学的出色文章已在《哈佛商业评论》等顶级商业出版物中发表，另外，世界各地也有成千上万本九型人格书籍被翻译和出版。